Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0
Petunia axillaris
M-type_MADS Family
Species TF ID Description
Peaxi162Scf00003g00305.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00003g02825.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00006g00057.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00006g00075.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00006g00718.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00007g01333.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00008g00273.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00008g01613.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00011g00077.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00011g00124.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00016g00324.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00016g03250.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00016g03251.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00016g03256.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00020g00124.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00021g00010.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00023g00289.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00023g02534.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00047g02018.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00054g01813.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00061g00181.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00071g10117.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00076g01010.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00081g00007.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00096g00151.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00096g00154.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00100g00104.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00104g00101.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00104g00131.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00104g00132.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00104g00193.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00104g01011.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00109g00139.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00118g01710.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00122g02012.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00126g00911.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00128g01411.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00129g00103.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00152g00632.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00155g00103.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00194g00005.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00204g00167.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00216g00094.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00222g00415.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00222g00424.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00225g00021.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00225g00024.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00249g00064.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00271g00075.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00272g00226.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00274g00002.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00274g00457.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00276g00115.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00276g00118.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00307g00011.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00332g10015.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00369g00132.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00370g00071.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00382g00087.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00394g00022.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00413g00075.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00440g00014.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00449g00069.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00487g00043.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00518g00005.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00518g00011.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00538g00047.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00553g00033.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00593g00002.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00611g00062.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00611g00063.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00611g00064.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00611g00065.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00611g00514.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00611g00515.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00617g00002.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00617g00003.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00617g00011.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00617g00012.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00658g00627.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00683g00114.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00803g00313.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00803g00314.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00894g00002.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00920g00027.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00943g00016.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf00943g00019.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf01013g00025.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf01110g00011.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf01178g00001.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf01193g00001.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf01312g00064.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf01553g00012.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf03110g00001.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peaxi162Scf29147g00002.1M-type_MADS family protein
M-type_MADS (M-type MADS) Family Introduction

The best studied plant MADS-box transcription factors are those involved in floral organ identity determination. Analysis of homeotic floral mutants resulted in the formulation of a genetic model, named the ABC model, that explains how the combined functions of three classes of genes (A, B, and C) determine the identity of the four flower organs (reviewed by Coen and Meyerowitz, 1991). Arabidopsis has two A-class genes (AP1 and AP2 [Bowman et al., 1989]), two B-class genes (PI and AP3), and a single C-class gene (AG), of which only AP2 is not a MADS-box gene. Recently, it was shown that the Arabidopsis B- and C-function genes, which control petal, stamen, and carpel development, are functionally dependent on three highly similar MADS-box genes, SEP1, SEP2, and SEP3 (Pelaz et al., 2000). Interestingly, only when mutant knockout alleles of the three SEP genes were combined in a triple sep1 sep2 sep3 mutant was loss of petal, stamen, and carpel identity observed, resulting in a flower composed of only sepals. This example shows that redundancy occurs in the MADS-box gene family, which complicates reverse genetic strategies for gene function analysis. The SHP genes provide another example of MADS-box gene redundancy. shp1 and shp2 single mutants do not exhibit any phenotypic effect, whereas in the double mutant, development of the dehiscence zone is disturbed in the fruit, resulting in a failure to release seeds (Liljegren et al., 2000)[1].

It has been proposed that there are at least 2 lineages (type I and type II) of MADS-box genes in plants, animals, and fungi. Most of the well-studied plant genes are type II genes and have three more domains than type I genes from the N to the C terminus of the protein:intervening (I) domain (~30 codons), keratin-lik e coiled-coil (K) domain (~70 codons), and Cterminal (C) domain (variable length). These genes are called the MIKC-type and are specific to plants[2].

The MADS-box is a DNA binding domain of 58 amino acids that binds DNA at consensus recognition sequences known as CArG boxes [CC(A/T)6GG] (Hayes et al., 1988; Riechmann et al., 1996b). The interaction with DNA has been studied in detail for the human and yeast MADS-box proteins thanks to the resolved crystal structures (Pellegrini et al., 1995; Santelli and Richmond, 2000). The I domain is less conserved and contributes to the specification of dimerization. The K domain is characterized by a coiled-coil structure, which facilitates the dimerization of MADS-box proteins (Davies et al., 1996; Fan et al., 1997). The C domain is the least conserved domain; in some cases, it has been shown to contain a transactivation domain or to contribute to the formation of multimeric MADS-box protein complexes (Egea-Cortines et al., 1999; Honma and Goto, 2001)[1].

1.Parenicova L, de Folter S, Kieffer M, Horner DS, Favalli C, Busscher J, Cook HE, Ingram RM, Kater MM, Davies B, Angenent GC, Colombo L.
Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the complete MADS-box transcription factor family in Arabidopsis: new openings to the MADS world.
Plant Cell. 2003 Jul;15(7):1538-51.
PMID: 12837945
2.Nam J, dePamphilis CW, Ma H, Nei M.
Antiquity and evolution of the MADS-box gene family controlling flower development in plants.
Mol Biol Evol. 2003 Sep;20(9):1435-47. Epub 2003 May 30.
PMID: 12777513